TYPES OF ADDICTION
TYPES OF ADDICTION
Ecstasy Addiction Leads to many Health Problems
Ecstasy or MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, is an amphetamine class of drug. Because the drug produces feelings of intimacy and decreases feelings of fear and anxiety, the drug was once considered for use in couples therapy. Recently, scientists have started to study the effects of MDMA on people who have post-traumatic stress disorder and for people who suffer from anxiety associated with cancer.
Under the United Nations agreement, Ecstasy is illegal, to have it, manufacture it or sell it is considered a crime. Because the drug is one of the most widely used in the world, instances of Ecstasy addiction have also become more common. Ecstasy is commonly associated with people who enjoy the rave culture and certain related genres of music.
There have long been debates as to the risks of MDMA, scientists, health care professionals and drug policy makers argue over the drugs potential to damage the central nervous system. Certain regulatory authorities around the world have approved the use of ecstasy in people to examine the effects in humans and whether or not the drug has therapeutic potential.
During the early 1980's, ecstasy in the US rose to popularity and was known as "Adam," within the trendy gay dance clubs of Dallas, Texas. From Dallas, the drug spread to other major cities around the country and into mainstream society. On May 31, 1985 the United States Drug Enforcement Agency classified MDMA as a Schedule I drug.
Once the drug began to spread to colleges and high schools, the potential for Ecstasy addiction grew exponentially. In the United States, ecstasy has become one of the top four most frequently used drugs along with cocaine, heroin and marijuana. Currently, in the U.S., some estimates state that only marijuana will attract more first-time users.
The mechanism of action of MDMA is not yet completely understood, but the drug does facilitate the release of oxytocin, which is a hormone commonly released during childbirth and orgasm. It is thought that this chemical fosters a false sense of trust that some ecstasy users experience when ingesting the drug. It is not known however, if this is one of the reasons why ecstasy addiction has become more and more common.
For people with an ecstasy addiction the primary effects are consistent among other users and can occur within 30-60 minutes after consuming the drug and reaches a plateau within 4-6 hours. The most common effects reported by people who use ecstasy are euphoria, decrease in hostility, increased feelings of intimacy, intense feelings of hearing and touch, short-term memory loss, decreased appetite and feelings of empathy towards other people.
Ecstasy addiction has some long term effects which can include increase in rates of depression and anxiety, long term memory loss, cognitive impairment, liver damage and excessive wearing of the teeth. Long term abuse of MDMA can also include Hallucinogenic Persistent Perception Disorder, which is a condition in which the brain experiences continual visual disturbances and hallucinations.